Physics of. Semiconductor Devices. Third Edition. S. M. Sze. Department of Electronics Engineering. National Chiao Tung University. Hsinchu, Taiwan and. The book is an introduction to the physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology. It is intended as a textbook for . Physics of. Semiconductor Devices. Third Edition. S. M. Sze. National Chiao Tung University Chapter 1 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors—A Review.
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Ballasting resistor Ballistic transport 37,49, , , , 3 10,. ,,, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd Edition by S. M. Sze and. Download Physics Of Semiconductor Devices By Simon M. Sze, Kwok K. Ng – Physics Of Semiconductor Devices is a book that can be used as a reference by. In this Third Edition of Physics of Semiconductor Devices, over 50% of the material has S. M. Sze Hsinchu, Taiwan Kwok K. Ng San Jose, California July
Unit Prefixes, D. Greek Alphabet, E. Physical Constants, F. Properties of Important Semiconductors, G. Properties of Si and GaAs, H. Sze and Kwok K. Energy band, carrier concentration, and transport properties are briefly surveyed, with emphasis on the two most-important semiconductors: silicon Si and gallium arsenide GaAs. A compilation of the recommended or most-accurate values for these semiconductors is given in the illustrations of Chapter 1 and in the Appendixes for convenient reference.
Part 11, Chapters 2 through 4, treats the basic device building blocks from which all semiconductor devices can be constructed.
Chapter 2 considers the p-n junction characteristics. Because thep-n junction is the building block of most semiconductor devices, p-n junction theory serves as the foundation of the physics of semiconductor devices. Chapter 2 also considers the heterojunction, that is a junction formed between two dissimilar semiconductors. For example, we can use gallium arsenide GaAs and aluminum arsenide AlAs to form a heterojunction. The heterojunction is a key building block for high-speed and photonic devices.
Chapter 3 treats the metal-semiconductor contact, which is an intimate contact between a metal and a semiconductor. The contact can be rectifying similar to ap-n junction if the semiconductor is moderately doped and becomes ohmic if the semiconductor is very heavily doped.
An ohmic contact can pass current in either direction with a negligible voltage drop and can provide the necessary connections between devices and the outside world. Chapter 4 considers the metal-insulator-semiconductor MIS capacitor of which the Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS structure is the dominant member.
Knowledge of the surface physics associated with the MOS capacitor is important, not only for understanding MOS-related devices such as the MOSFET and the floating-gate nonvolatile memory but also because of its relevance to the stability and reliability of all other semiconductor devices in their surface and isolation areas.
Chapter 5 treats the bipolar transistor, that is, the interaction between two closely coupled p-n junctions. The bipolar transistor is one of the most-important original semiconductor devices. The invention of the bipolar transistor in ushered in the modern electronic era.
The distinction between a field-effect transistor and a potential-effect transistor such as the bipolar transistor is that in the former, the channel is modulated by the gate through a capacitor whereas in the latter, the channel is controlled by a direct contact to the channel region. Chapter 6 also treats the nonvolatile semiconductor memory which is the dominant memory for portable electronic systems such as the cellular phone, notebook computer, digital camera, audio and video players, and global positioning system GPS.
Part IV, Chapters 8 through 1 1 , considers negative-resistance and power devices. In Chapter 8, we discuss the tunnel diode a heavily dopedp-n junction and the resonant-tunneling diode a double-barrier structure formed by multiple heterojunctions.
These devices show negative differential resistances due to quantummechanical tunneling. They can generate microwaves or serve as functional devices, that is, they can perform a given circuit function with a greatly reduced number of components. Chapter 9 discusses the transit-time devices. When a p-n junction or a metal-semiconductor junction is operated in avalanche breakdown, under proper conditions we have an IMPATT diode that can generate the highest CW continuous wave power output of all solid-state devices at millimeter-wave frequencies i.
The transferred-electron device TED is considered in Chapter Microwave oscillation can be generated by the mechanism of electron transfer from a high-mobility lower-energy valley in the conduction band to a low-mobility higher-energy valley in momentum space , the transferred-electron effect. Also presented are the real-space-transfer devices which are similar to TED but the electron transfer occurs between a narrow-bandgap material to an adjacent wide-bandgap material in real space as opposed to momentum space.
The thyristor, which is basically three closely coupledp-n junctions in the form of ap-n-p-n structure, is discussed in Chapter These devices have a wide range of power-handling and switching capability; they can handle currents from a few milliamperes to thousands of amperes and voltages above V.
Photonic devices can detect, generate, and convert optical energy to electric energy, or vice versa. The semiconductor light sources-light-emitting diode LED and laser, are discussed in Chapter The LEDs have a multitude of applications as display devices such as in electronic equipment and traffic lights, and as illuminating devices such as flashlights and automobile headlights.
Semiconductor lasers are used in optical-fiber communication, video players, and high-speed laser printing. Various photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high response speed are discussed in Chapter The chapter also considers the solar cell which converts optical energy to electrical energy similar to a photodetector but with different emphasis and device configuration.
As the worldwide energy demand increases and the fossil-fuel supply will be exhausted soon, there is an urgent need to develop alternative energy sources. The solar cell is considered a major candidate because it can convert sunlight directly to electricity with good conversion efficiency, can provide practically everlasting power at low operating cost, and is virtually nonpolluting.
Chapter 14 considers important semiconductor sensors. The mechanism of action when the diode is off has to do with the separation of charge carriers around the junction. This is called a " depletion region ". Development of the diode[ edit ] Armed with the knowledge of how these new diodes worked, a vigorous effort began to learn how to build them on demand.
Within a year germanium production had been perfected to the point where military-grade diodes were being used in most radar sets.
Development of the transistor[ edit ] Main article: History of the transistor After the war, William Shockley decided to attempt the building of a triode -like semiconductor device. He secured funding and lab space, and went to work on the problem with Brattain and John Bardeen.
The key to the development of the transistor was the further understanding of the process of the electron mobility in a semiconductor. It was realized that if there were some way to control the flow of the electrons from the emitter to the collector of this newly discovered diode, an amplifier could be built. For instance, if contacts are placed on both sides of a single type of crystal, current will not flow between them through the crystal.
However if a third contact could then "inject" electrons or holes into the material, current would flow. Actually doing this appeared to be very difficult. If the crystal were of any reasonable size, the number of electrons or holes required to be injected would have to be very large, making it less than useful as an amplifier because it would require a large injection current to start with.
That said, the whole idea of the crystal diode was that the crystal itself could provide the electrons over a very small distance, the depletion region.
The key appeared to be to place the input and output contacts very close together on the surface of the crystal on either side of this region. Brattain started working on building such a device, and tantalizing hints of amplification continued to appear as the team worked on the problem.
Sometimes the system would work but then stop working unexpectedly. In one instance a non-working system started working when placed in water.
Ohl and Brattain eventually developed a new branch of quantum mechanics , which became known as surface physics , to account for the behaviour. The electrons in any one piece of the crystal would migrate about due to nearby charges.
Electrons in the emitters, or the "holes" in the collectors, would cluster at the surface of the crystal where they could find their opposite charge "floating around" in the air or water. Yet they could be pushed away from the surface with the application of a small amount of charge from any other location on the crystal.
Instead of needing a large supply of injected electrons, a very small number in the right place on the crystal would accomplish the same thing. Their understanding solved the problem of needing a very small control area to some degree. Instead of needing two separate semiconductors connected by a common, but tiny, region, a single larger surface would serve. The electron-emitting and collecting leads would both be placed very close together on the top, with the control lead placed on the base of the crystal.
When current flowed through this "base" lead, the electrons or holes would be pushed out, across the block of semiconductor, and collect on the far surface.
As long as the emitter and collector were very close together, this should allow enough electrons or holes between them to allow conduction to start. The first transistor[ edit ] A stylized replica of the first transistor The Bell team made many attempts to build such a system with various tools, but generally failed.
Setups where the contacts were close enough were invariably as fragile as the original cat's whisker detectors had been, and would work briefly, if at all. Eventually they had a practical breakthrough. A piece of gold foil was glued to the edge of a plastic wedge, and then the foil was sliced with a razor at the tip of the triangle.
The result was two very closely spaced contacts of gold. When the wedge was pushed down onto the surface of a crystal and voltage applied to the other side on the base of the crystal , current started to flow from one contact to the other as the base voltage pushed the electrons away from the base towards the other side near the contacts.
The point-contact transistor had been invented.
While the device was constructed a week earlier, Brattain's notes describe the first demonstration to higher-ups at Bell Labs on the afternoon of 23 December , often given as the birthdate of the transistor.
What is now known as the " p—n—p point-contact germanium transistor " operated as a speech amplifier with a power gain of 18 in that trial. Origin of the term "transistor"[ edit ] Bell Telephone Laboratories needed a generic name for their new invention: "Semiconductor Triode", "Solid Triode", "Surface States Triode" [ sic ], "Crystal Triode" and "Iotatron" were all considered, but "transistor", coined by John R.
Pierce , won an internal ballot. The rationale for the name is described in the following extract from the company's Technical Memoranda May 28,  calling for votes: Transistor.
High-Speed III-V Semiconductor Devices
This is an abbreviated combination of the words "transconductance" or "transfer", and "varistor".Leave this field empty. Matters became worse when Bell Labs lawyers found that some of Shockley's own writings on the transistor were close enough to those of an earlier patent by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld that they thought it best that his name be left off the patent application.