TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR INTERIOR DESIGN AND SPACE PLANNING. Karl Ryan Candinato. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Preface Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning is a professional handbook dealing with the planning, design, and detailing of interior . Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data seventh edition The Reference C Interiors Interiors includes elements for defining interior partitions, walls.

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Time -Saver Standards For Interior Design And Space Planning. International Editions Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Book Co-Singapore for. Feb Download Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning ebook (pdf). Time saver standards for interior design Time saver standards for interior design and space planning, 2nd edition pdf ebook full free.

The logical answer is the development of kitchen cabinet systems capable of total adjustability to accommodate the human dimension of the individual user. Such a system could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size, but also elderly and disabled people. Figure 1 provides some general anthropometric data for establishing basic heights of cabinetry and appliances above the floor Figures 2 and 3 show in more detail the interface of the human body and the kitchen environment. Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 in, or The anthropometric basis for the clearances are amplified in Fig.

The in, or The range workzone clearance, also 40 in, is adequate to accommodate the open range door and the body size of the kneeling user. An extremely important, but frequently overlooked, anthropometric consideration in kitchen design is eye height.

In this regard, the distance from the top of the range to the underside of the hood should allow the rear burners to be visible to the user.

When not broken, it provides the opportunity and floor space for several simultaneous activities. The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends, often converting it from a work space to a corridor It sometimes is closed off on one end, thereby creating a variation of the U-plan, which although small can produce a fairly comfortable kitchen.

The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical Ushaped scheme. The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. The typical L-shaped kitchen allows for the location of a small breakfast area in the opposite corner.

A'riargle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout.

Minimum counter frontage. For combined work centers. Work centers for the following equipment, cabinets, and space for their use should be provided: Range space with base and wall cabinet at one side for serving and storage of utensils and staples. Sink and base cabinet with counter space on each side forcleanup.

Wall cabinets for storage f dinnerware. Refrigerator space with counter space at latch side of the refrigerator door. Mixing counter and base cabinet for electrical appliances and utensil storage. Wall cabinet for staple storage. Recommended minimum edge distance Equipment should be placed to allow for efficient operating room between it and any adjacent corner cabinet. At least 9 in from the edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the side of the refrigerator is recommended.

Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should be provided between base cabinets or appliances opposite each other This same minimum clearance applies when a wall, storage wall, or work table is opposite a base cabinet. Traffic Traffic in the kitchen should be limited to kitchen work only.

Serving circulation to the dining area should be without any cross traffic. Height of shelving and counter tops 1. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Height of counter tops should be 36 in. Minimum clearance height between sink and wall cabinet 24 in ; between base and wall cabinets in clearance. Dimension B: Dimension C: Dimension D: Dimension E: Dimension F: Minimum clearance should be not less than 3 in.

Cabinet protection should be at least in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0. Since the wall behind a sink often holds a window, measurement for a cabinet is academic. But if wall space is minimal, a cabinet over the sink makes good sense. The use of large pans, pancake flips and similar cooking maneuvers dictate a distance of 30 in. A fan mounted in the wall is the means here to exhaust cooking fumes to the outside.

Utensil and General Storage Kitchen activities become tiresome in poor light. A single fixture, centered on the ceiling is insufficient. Your need for light is greatest over the work centers A good light there reduces the danger of cutting yourself ; eases the task of monitoring color changes during a mix, and so on.

The best place to install fixtures for this purpose is beneath the wall cabinets with a shield to prevent glare when you're seated in the kitchen. A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink, as well. Choose incandescent, deluxe warm white or deluxe cool white lamps for the fixtures to avoid poor color rendition.

With the increased use of such electrical appliances, their storage becomes a significant problem. General storage requires space for linens, towels, and kitchen supplies.

Included in this category are brooms, mops, and other cleaning equipment and supplies. Minimum Kitchen Storage Required Item Total shelving in wall and base cabinets Shelving in either wall or base cabinets Drawer area Countertop area , Item Total shelving in wall and base cabinets Shelving in either wall or base cabinets Drawer area Countertop area A range of 15 in.

Opt for the 15 in. The highest shelf: Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided. No room count is allowable for this type facility. Framed wall cabinets are 12" deep not including doors. Most are available in widths ranging from 9" to 48 ;' in 3" increments.

Framed base cabinets are 24" deep, not including doors. Frameless are ',3Y2" deep with door,, Four-drawer base cabinets are available in widths ranging from 12" to 24 ; in 3" increments. Most are available in widths of Some of the larger ranges consist of modular cooktops providing anywhere from two to seven heating elements as well as modular grills, griddles, and even downdraft built-in ventilators. Normally, a minimum clearance of 30" is required above any range or cooktop, but the designer is cautioned to carefully verify local code requirements.

Manufacturers' specifications should be carefully reviewed for rough opening requirements and any venting requirements, particularly for self-cleaning ovens. Dishwashers Built-in, freestanding, and undersink dishwashers are fairly well standardized in terms of overall dimensions. Access to plumbing and waste lines is the major consideration, as is the method of securing the dishwasher in order to minimize vibration.

Refrigerators Refrigerator door swings and clearances are of critical importance. This is particularly true of the side-by-side door configuration. In addition, adequate clearance should be allowed between the sides and top of the refrigerator and any adjoining cabinetwork, especially if a built-in look is desired.

The designer should check requirements with the manufacturer. While these drawings can be used for preliminary planning, final dimensions and clearance must be verified with the manufacturer Often overlooked are clearances for refrigerator handles or pulls as well as coils mounted at the rear of the refrigerator.

Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height.

The adaptable features for kitchens specified in the standards are shown in Figs.

In Fig. No other changes have been made to the kitchen. Since removable base cabinets and adjustable height counters are not now products that are readily available for download, they are usually custom-made items. The standards ANSI 4. The wider work surface provides space for pots, dishes, and other utensils as well as small appliances, and makes it easier to work on several things at once or to cook using many ingredients.

The standards specify that when the wall oven is not self-cleaning, a knee space must be located next to the oven to permit a disabled person in a wheelchair to pull up close enough to clean the oven. Even if a self-cleaning oven is installed, locating the knee space next to the oven makes it easier and safer for a disabled person to remove hot items from the oven. When an oven with a side-opening door is used, a pull-out shelf located beneath the oven must be installed.

The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven. When not needed, the shelf is pushed back into the oven cabinet Fig. When an oven with a drop-front door is used Fig.

See ANSI 4. The controls must be placed along the front or the side of the range so that a seated person need not reach across a hot burner to adjust the controls Fig. Some wheelchair users cannot use conventional ranges because the surface is too high and there is no knee space for maneuvering. Cooktops in lowered counter segments with knee space below allow some wheelchair users to get close enough to operate the controls and move heavy pots and pans Fig.

Cooktops with smooth surfaces are preferred by people with limited hand and arm strength because they can slide pots of hot food on and off the cooktop rather than lifting them over raised burners and knobs.

When a cooktop is installea in a lowered counter, the width of the counter segment and knee space should be at least 30 inches and should provide space to the side of the cooktop for utensils and maneuvering. An additional 30 inches to the side is recom- mended Fig. When the knee space is under a cooktop, the standards require that the bottom of the cooktop be insulated to protect against accidental burns.

People who pull up beneath the cooktop must exercise extreme care and cool hot foods before moving them. The size of books, the types of books and other reading materials, the reach limitations of the user, etc. It is possible, however, for preliminary planning purposes, to apply the broad guidelines indicated in Figs.

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Seven volumes per foot of shelving can be used as a rule-of-thumb to project capacity. The height of the highest shelf above the floor should be limited to between 78 and 81 in ; 24 in is the minimum height above the floor to gain access to a shelf without squatting.

Limitations for shelving to serve children will differ and are indicated in Fig. The front of the shelf is supported by the vertical members and the back of the shelf is nailed to the plywood back. These built-in bookshelves and bar unit were developed for a residence on the Eastern Shore of Maryland.

Not all games occupy floor areas indicated as necessary for those diagramed on this page. But if interiors are planned to accommodate large units of equipment such as that required for table tennis, and provide necessary playing clearances, spaces will be adequate for many other uses as well.

Dimensions of game equipment and floor areas required for its use are both subject to variation. Sizes noted here are comfortable averages, not absolute minima. Note how the recessed fluorescent tube fixtures indirectly light up all the glasses and the 2" open slot in the bottom shelf indirectly lights up the liquor bottles on the back bar shelf.

The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above ; this allows for two different methods of lighting the bar area. Note also that the bar front is slightly padded with foam rubber and the entire bar top is finished with dark brown leatherette. General Planning Suggestions 1. It is desirable to plan space for specific laundry processes. Moistureproof surfaces are needed for pretreating and sprinkling of clothes.

Drying areas should be accessible for use under all climatic conditions. To control moisture in the room, dryers should be located to permit venting to the outside of the house. Adequate storage for washing equipment and supplies should be located near the place of first use.

Facilities for hanging drip-dry garments after washing should be provided. In locating the washing equipment consideration should be given to convenience of inter-related household activities, distances from the source of soiled clothes and the drying areas, and the isolation of clutter.

Space needed by a single worker in front of equipment or between equipment placed opposite is indicated. Overall dimensions of areas will vary with type and size of equipment selected.

No allowance has been made between the back of equipment and the wall for electrical, plumbing, and dryer vent connections. The space required will depend on the type of installation used. Counter space is provided for sorting and folding three washer loads of clothes.

The Total floor area, in Work area, in Wi dt h Depth 43 x 37 43 63 36 x 59 62 76 36 x 66 62 66 space under the counters has been used for bins, one for soiled clothing and the other for dry, clean articles that require further treatment before use or storage. Additional counter space can be provided by the tops of the dryer and washer, depending upon the type selected. A tall storage cabinet for laundry supplies would complement each arrangement.

In this cabinet, an ironing board, iron, mops, and buckets needed for cleaning the laundry area may also be stored. The laundry area may be separate or combined with the bathroom, the kitchen, the utility space, or the corridor. The most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages of these various options are listed below.

Separate Laundry Advantages A separate space can be used for other activities such as sewing and hobbies, if it is large enough. Clothes may be hung for air drying without interfering with other household activities. Noise from laundry appliances can be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Temporary holding or storage of clothing to be washed or ironed is made easier.

Disadvantages Providing this extra room increases the cost of the dwelling. Laundry in Combination with Bathroom Advantages When the bathroom is located near the bedrooms, the washer and dryer are close to where most laundry originates. This facili tates gathering soiled articles and putting away clean linen and clothing. Combining the laundry space with a half bathroom adjacent to the kitchen provides many of the advantages of a separate laundry room.

The tops of the laundry appliances provide useful horizontal space on which to lay clothes. Floor and wall finishes in bathrooms are usually resistant to high humidities. Usually, additional plumbing costs are minimal. The bathroom sink may be used for hand washing. Mechanical ventilation can be provided economically for both functions. Disadvantages A bathroom will usually accommodate only washing and drying facilities. Other laundry related activities such as ironing, will have to be carried out elsewhere in the dwelling.

Occupants may wish to use the bathroom when laundry is being washed or dried. KEY I, Z. Direct access to the outside for clothes drying is likely to be easier than from laundries located in a basement or on a second storey. Kitchen sinks are usually sizeable and can be used for laundering. Additional plumbing costs are usually small. Disadvantages Danger of cross-contamination through the handling of dirty washing during food preparation.

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Grease and cooking smells can be passed on to clean clothes. Noise generated by running appliances cannot easily be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Noise generated by running appliances can be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Disadvantages Laundry must be carried up and down stairs, although automatic dryers have eased the problem of carrying heavy baskets of damp clothes to outdoor clotheslines.

The space above the appliances may be used as a linen closet. The appliances can be hidden from sight when they are not in use; they can be recessed into the wall and enclosed with doors. Disadvantages Noise generated by running appliances cannot be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. An alcove adjacent to a corridor will accommodate only a minimum-sized laundry area. Other laundry related activities, such as ironing, will have to be carried out elsewhere in the dwelling.

Convenience and time-and-step saving are easily achieved by placing the elements in their natural order of use: KEY I. An area especially planned for sewing, convenient to other activity areas, is desirable. Most houses need storage space for sewing materials and equipment. The amount and kind of storage required varies according to the quality and frequency of sewing.

A minimum sewing area should include the machine, auxiliary work surfaces, a chair that permits freedom of motion, and storage arrangements. The work surface for layout and cutting may be outside the area for sewing machine operations and serve multiple purposes.

Consideration should be given to work surfaces at comfortable heights for the varying activities of sewing. Light should be adequate for the activity.

Wherever possible or practical, the closet shelf should be located within human reach. The height shown for the high shelf has been established based on fifth percentile male and female data in order to place it within reach of individuals of smaller body size. Any shelf located at a greater distance should be used primarily for storage that requires only infrequent access.

The location of the shelf just above the rod is essentially a function of rod height. The clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy removal of the hanger. Figure 3 illustrates two various types of walk-in storage facilities.

Undoubtably, it can be argued that the in, or The authors contend, however, that in order to achieve any degree of comfort in the selection and removal of the desired garment, a minimum of 36 in should be maintained.

The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the level of comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved. The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for donning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings.

Three types of closets are common. Walk-in closet This type provides rods on one or both sides of an access path at least 20" wide. A wider access space within the closet may be used as a dressing area.

Reach-in closet The minimum front-to-back depth of space for hanging clothes is 24". The accessible rod length is equal to the width of the door opening plus 6" on each side. Shelf Space and Lighting The shelf is normally located 2" above the rod, and another shelf may be located 12" higher.

Shelves higher than the rod may also be installed at the end of the closet. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet. Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes.

Rod Lengths and Heights Edge-in closet By providing an edge-in space of at least 18", the accessible rod length can be much longer than the door width. This requires less wall space than a full front opening. Recommended heights of rods are 68" for long robes, 63" for adult clothing, and 32" for children's clothing. The Minimum Property Standards of HUD require that each bedroom have a closet, with rod and shelf, with minimum dimensions of For double-occupancy bedrooms: This diagram shows dimensions for rods, shelves, and drawers to hold underwear, sweaters, shoes, hats, purses, and ties.

Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing. Optional baskets and door racks. Optional full-height door storage rack. Sliding baskets hold fruit, vegetables and other kitchen supplies.

Optional door racks maximize storage area by utilizing all available space. Top View Standard pantry design provides ample shelving and storage for canned goods and other food items. Center pole gives extra support. Optional door racks provide easy access to your most needed items.

Plenty of shelving space for cloths, detergents and brushes. Wide storage area holds vacuum cleaner, brooms, mops and small appliances. Storage baskets pack brushes, cloths and sundry items. Bottled detergents and cleaning products can be stored neatly and safely in optional door racks. The perfect his and hers closet. Extra wide shelf space for clothing, linen and blankets in your master bedroom.

Plus lots of room for her long dresses and coats - his shirts, suits and slacks. Shoe racks on both sides. Front View Full-width, double hanging with lower shelving height. Sliding basket system and shoe racks. Extra lowhanging shelf makes it easy for kids to reach. Stores toys and sports equipment in easy-access sliding baskets.

Shoe rack keeps sneakers and other footwear neatly organized. Front View Walk-In. Single and double hang with upper storage and central shelving unit with additional clearance and shoe racks. Double hanging convenience for shorter garments. Full shelves with central storage unit allow easy storage of sweaters, boots, sports equipment, tall and over-sized items. Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom.

Front View StandardDouble. Plenty of storage space for footballs, beach equipment, basketballs, skates and other cumbersome items. Doubles as storage area for dresses and coats.

Conveniently placed hanging rod for all your teenager's clothing. M'14 16 and 20" widths available Top View Four extra-wide shelves for linen and blankets. Storage baskets slide out and hold dish cloths, pillowcases and smaller items. The perfect linen closet. Fullwidth, upper storage holds hats, gloves and sweaters. Off-center storage for umbrellas and winter items. Shelves, shoe racks and generous hanging space lets guests know they're welcome.

Front View Single hang with halflength shoe racks and upper storage. Upper storage area for visitor's bags and small cases. Singleand double hang with upper storage, central shelving and shoe racks.

Sliding baskets for easy access to linen, underwear, etc. Fulllength clothes storage for dresses, shirts and suits. Ideal for master bedroom. Top View Front View Single hang with upper storage and central shelving and basket unit, additional clearance and shoe racks. Four sliding baskets provide multiple storage capacity for shirts, underwear, socks and sweaters. Full-length clothes hanging space, fullwidth shoe racks and lots of shelf space make this system a must for your 2nd bedroom.

Hang dresses and coats on one side, suits and shorter garments on the other. Central shelving actually replaces a piece of furniture in the master bedroom! Single hanging for clothes, coats, shirts and jackets. Expands easily to accommodate future needs. Within these buildings, workers spend nearly half their waking hours and a third of their entire lives. Over the life span of a typical office building, the same spaces may be occupied by a succession of different tenants, each with their own programmatic requirements.

Consequently, interior spaces may be recycled and redesigned many times, simply to accommodate the changing needs of new corporate users. In many instances redesign may be necessitated solely by the effect of technological change on the methodology of transacting business. Moreover, the escalating costs of land acquisition and construction and the increasing scarcity of urban building sites make it essential that the redesign reflects an efficient, cost-effective utilization of space, as well as one that is responsive to the human factors involved.

It is necessary, therefore, for the designer to be familiar not only with the general planning criteria associated with office design, but with the architectural detailing of some of the typical interior elements contained within these spaces. Accordingly, this section includes general planning criteria and examples of actual working drawings of typical interior conditions, prepared by various design professionals.

The details alluded to include such items as trading desks, elevated computer floors, library furniture, built-in storage cabinets, work counters, wall paneling, vanities, reception desks, and conference room elements.

Also included are illustrations and dimensional data pertaining to typical office furniture, equipment, and electronic media storage. Basic Workstations The so-called general office takes on a variety of forms and configurations. In its simplest variation it may be nothing more complex than several standard desks with returns located within a room or space.

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In its more sophisticated and ergonomically designed form, the general office may be based on an open planning or office landscaping concept, involving a system of workstations. The workstations include desk surfaces, files, acoustic partitions, and a host of other optional components to suit the nature of the particular work tasks involved. The systems are extremely flexible, allowing the workstations to be configured in a variety of shapes. Provision for power and lighting is quite common. The design of the general office, like the design of the private office, requires a knowledge of the basic dimensional requirements and clearances of the workstation and, where applicable, of the visitor seating to be accommodated.

Accordingly, this part includes basic planning criteria for general office design, in addition to examples of architectural woodwork details in connection with some of the more common customized components of general office spaces. The basic workstation, as illustrated in plan in Fig. The worktask zone must be large enough to accommodate the paperwork, equipment, and other accessories that support the user's function.

In no case should this distance be less than the 30 in, or The visitor seating zone, ranging in depth from 30 to 42 in, or The specific type and size of the seating i. Figure 2 shows the typical workstation expanded into the basic U-shaped configuration. Not only does it provide more storage, the lateral file unit is generally the same height as that of the worksurface and is often utilized as a supplementary worksurface. The distance between this unit and that of the primary worksurface must be sufficient to allow for movement and rotation of the chair.

Square footage workstation standards for the nonautomated task are developed primarily according to task profile, equipment, conferencing, and privacy requirements. Task Profile: Processing paper on work surface with quick turnaround. Telephone tasks may require concentration. Typewriter the primary tool for processing paper.

Tasks may require concentration. Storage for permanent files and reference materials minimal. Limited conferencing required at the workspace. Same as 1 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation. Same as 3 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation.

Data Entry. Multiple Workstations Fig. Size of worksurface, length and depth of return, chair size, and circulation patterns all influence the gross square footage requirements. Clustering of workstations will ultimately result in the use of less floor area, but at the expense of majorergonomic considerations.

Decisions relative to both acoustical privacy and personal space are often sacrificed in the name of economy. Multiple Workstations Multiple workstations can result in efficient utilization of space and sharing of expensive computer terminals and equipment. If use of computer terminals is intensive, individual CRTs should be provided. Figures 5, 6, and 7 each show eight workstations, yet the setups range in area from to ft 2.

Furniture size, function, and ergonomic considerations all affect setup. Office Layout It is not unusual to have two or more persons share an enclosed office space.

In planning this type of office space, both circulation and clearance become critically important. Door swings, the extension of file drawers, and points of entry must all be carefully considered. This page and the following pages include the necessary planning criteria required, as well as details of certain customized components.

Desks are also available in generally accepted standard sizes. It is these standard desks that are most used in the design of the private office. Figure 1 illustrates the range of desk dimensions, chair dimensions, and clearances involved.

Such a situation is illustrated in Fig. Such a desk is often selected if the executive in question plans to hold conferences within the office and prefers the psychology of having either visitors or employees gather around the worksurface in an egalitarian fashion. While a minimum desk size of 48 in, or A circular executive desk must be supported by supplementary credenza or file storage within easy reach of the executive chair.

Figure 3 illustrates a typical circular lounge grouping found within an executive office. Providing for the appropriate leg clearance of 12 to 18 in, or Buttock-knee length must also be considered. Typical Room Arrangements The private offices illustrated in Figs.

Each office layout should be carefully reviewed with the client to ensure that all programmatic functions have been met. Offices of this size do not easily accommodate an independent conference function.

These architectural working drawings reflect the custom design of a storage wall for a partner in a law office. Careful analysis shows the incorporation of file, book, and coat storage within a floor-to-ceiling mahogany wood unit. Careful attention must be given to integration of electronic equipment, electrical wiring, and task lighting. Other cost-saving devices illustrated here are the application of a wood panel to a standard metal file and the use of a fabricwrapped tack board.

The incorporation of an undercabinet task light is almost always required. These drawings are particularly helpful when the office project for which these wall units are intended consists of many offices, and each office is to be customized within certain constraints.

The sophistication and complexity of such details can significantly influence the budget for the space as well as the time of installation. Figure 25 represents a "high-end" approach, while Fig. Anthropometrics New electronic technologies, together with the advent and proliferation of the microcomputer and the availability of inexpensive packaged software, have changed the complexion of the office workplace.

The ergonomic considerations related to this new work environment have necessitated a reevaluation of the traditional interface between the seated office worker and his or her workplace. It is essential that the design of this electronic workstation be responsive to human factors in order to avoid physical discomfort for the user.

The location of the Keyboard, angle of the visual display terminal, adjustability of the chair, field of vision, provisions for back support, and height of the seat above the floor are a few of the considerations in the design process. This page and the following pages provide a variety of anthropometric and ergonomic planning data and details for use as reference in the design of the electronic workstation.

Figure 1 illustrates guidelines for use in establishing preliminary design assumptions for a workstation display console. Since the types of displays and the nature of the tasks associated with those displays can vary considerably, Fig. The configuration shown, however, is fairly representational. Certain basic factors should be noted anthropometrically. The use of an adjustable chair will permit the eye height of the seated viewer to be raised or lowered to view the display, as may be required depending on body size.

An adjustment range between 15 and 18 in, or Adjustability, however, will be of little value if the vertical distance between the underside of the desk and the floor is insufficient to accommodate the knee height and thigh clearance when the seat is adjusted to the appropriate position. If such distance is not less than The location of the top of the display should align with the standard sight line for optimum viewing conditions.

Since the eye and the head can rotate within certain limitations and, in so doing, increase the area that can be scanned, displays can be located above the standard sight line when absolutely necessary. Characteristic of this period is the perfect birth. The four Adam designed the shell of a house. The coordination between architects. The dark brown red of polished mahogany appears in the doors and furniture.

Chippendale went for inspiration to Chi- nese and Gothic decoration. Furniture hardware Chair and table legs Pilaster capitals signers of the later Georgian period. Some of the smaller pieces are inlaid with satinwood. They did not unimportant to deserve their attention.

All these colors are repeated in the rug. Adelphi Greek for brothers. George Hepplewhite. All the design- the champion of inlay against painting.

The sofa 1. Curtains are white silk.

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In the panels to the right are a number of authentic pieces which might be used in a Georgian bedroom such as this. This later Georgian period has often been more popular than carving. Green and heige enliven the carpet and painted ceiling design. Gold appears in the leather chair seats. The mahogany bed is covered in white taffeta trimmed with apple green. Curtains and chair seats would be cherry. Alternatively the wall paintings might he brighter and more varied in color.

This was couches that folded up to become tables. Sheraton's bined bookcases and washstand. Here probably because Hepplewhite was more These were designed for use in those bed- is seen the changing fashion: Alternatively the color scheme might be based on gold and white with blue green silk on the bed and yellow satin upholstery on the armchair for contrast.

Color and inlay become enlivened by a profusion of delicate curves. Ivory and brass inlay the background of decoration. Angelica Kauf. The basic proportions measured drawings.

Late Georgian Armchairs. Italian painters were brought in. Hepplewhite at- Most typically it took the form of gilded dignity and impressiveness required in the Most pieces displayed large surfaces of bas reliefs tacked to the smooth wood sur- The curtains are oyster white bound in gray and the rug predomi- nantly white except for green and gold in the center.

The symmetrical shapes of They were not. The walls are a pinkish gray. The center panel of this fagade is of stone.

For added color the fireside pieces might be upholstered in red satin. Green recurs in the upholstery of the armchair. With the rise of Napoleon to absolute power.

Fabrics arc gayly colored here: The walls are painted oyster white picked out with yellow moldings. Rosewood and ebony dresses and Lucullan banquets. Most of the furniture would be painted white and gold. Painted decoration was more com. The top furniture was painted and gilt. Where other woods were the early Directoire part of the period In home some new decorative motif which he used. The popular craze for all heaviness.

The chairs would then be upholstered in red. Alternatively the walls might be painted green with the cornice picked out in white and gold. Beds Napoleon's fist. They usually cian delicacy of form. Round tables were popular. Other pieces suitable for a room of this type are shown in the panels at right. Above the doors are white Classic figure paintings with a blue background which is echoed in the blue taffeta curtains.

At right are other pieces and fabrics suitable for this type of room. From each of his campaigns he brought were also in favor. These pieces have grace. Dtrectolre and Empire Pedestals Wall tables. The early Empire pieces Directoire are pressive collection of sphinxes. The hampering re- decoration. Colonial Colonial style. Colonial Queen Anne Queen Anne period Them Mott Shie 1. Met Ple white -. CVal Sack. With Straight Taper Lec. Contents Are. Furniture Is Very Au. The By THE. No DtTAtt. Tie Prdwrtioms However.

Numerous Accessories. Late Georgian Brothers Adam Furniture.. The PmcEU. Louts XIV. In Principle. Pieces af Furn iture French styles Top Than At The.

Soumrc Below The Seat. Pecorativc Motifs l 5one. Louis XIV Furniture. In This Case. Back Legs Wtw. U 1 Three. Back Settee With Tooled Uather. Hoo h 1 The. Hardwood flooring Carpet Chinese Chippendale striped.

Plain papers Vinyls in modern pattern geometric patterns Combinations of above French Provincial 18th-century Smooth piaster Hardwood flooring Aubussons American Wallpaper in scenic or Parquetry Homespun carpet.

Lounge Chairs. Twin bed 39 39 75 Youth bed 33 36 66 76 Ultimately. After all. Many manufacturers also make and sell undersized pillows for cribs and youth beds as well as oversized pillows for the larger beds. Dorm bed 32 36 75 80 Be sure to take your clients to see and test Hospital bed 36 36 75 80 the bed or mattress selected.

Tables 1 and 2. For Quern. The human eye comprehends detail oniy within a limited cone angle about 2Vi min- utes of arc. They vary both with the medium being used and with the type and quality of material being projected. The size of the viewing area is determined by three dimensions: Thus an object 20 feet away and 6 feet long appears the same as a similar object 1 0 feet away and 3 feet long.

Its size is always based on the size of the image to be viewed. They have not yet been pre- cisely determined by scientific methods. The generally ac- cepted values. Charles R. Knoll Internationa! Vecta YEAR: If such traffic is necessary. When the living room is combined with the dining area. Planning Considerations Planning considerations should include ade- quate floor and waii space for furniture groupings. Figure 3 shows a living for dining.

There are. During social activities. This is extremely tight. With n E n regard to the luxury end of the scale. D c rooms. Desirable conversation distance is Fig. Dwelling n 1 1 units with three or more bedrooms should have separate dining rooms or clearly defined dining areas.

Circulation within the living room should be as direct as possible and yet not interfere with furniture placement. In any case. Figure 5 shows that a space 12'6" x 15'6" should be provided in order to accommodate seating for five around a in-diameter cocktail table.

When planning furniture arrangements.

The piano. It should be noted that these diagrams are not intended as models for complete living room layouts. Figure 7 suggests that a space at. They are intended only as guidelines to illustrate minimum clearances for preliminary planning purposes.

Including plans. The design of the cabinet should take into account the actual electronicand other equipment to be housed and the clearances Involved for operation. Power outlets should be coordinated and located so as to conceal unsightly wires and cables. PLA N " ivll'-o 8 Fig. Based tor and designerare essential.

Sofas Traditional: LI Contemporary: Solas Contemporary: Desirable room for seating is a clear 42 in all around the dining table. Criterion The amount of space allocated to dining should be based on the number of persons to be served and the proper circulation space. Space for accommodating the following sizes of tables and chairs in the dining area should be provided. Commentary Size of the individual eating space on the table should be based upon a frontage of 24 2 in and an area of approximately 2 ft In.

The following minimum clearances from the edge of the table should be provided: In sizing the separate dining room. This area may be com- bined with the living room or kitchen.

This preference appears to stem from two needs: The location of the dining area in the kitchen is desirable for small houses and small apartments. Where only one dining location is feasible. Appropriate space should be provided for the storage of china and large dining articles either in the dining area itself or in the adjacent kitchen. In plan tor a typical armless dining chair and a dining chair with arms. It should be noted that the clearances Indicated relate to chairs with depth dimensions of 20" and" 22".

Table space is 24" per person. With arm chairs at the ends. Seating for four 2 requires 31 ft. There space behind the chairs to edge past one side and one end. Round tables. A 48" long table seats 4 and requires Corner bench. Since these illustrations are intended only as guidelines Dining space with benches.. Since these data come from two sources. A hutch or buffet is typically about 18" deep. A 48" long table seats 4 and of differing 2 requires 26 ft. A dining room for A 42" wide table Is common.

To assure adequate space for convenient use of the dining area. Because of the room layout. Length for primary bedroom: Widths less than 9'0" will usually require Each bedroom shall have at least one A larger proportion of the bedroom floor extra area to accommodate comparable closet that meets or exceeds the following area is occupied by furniture than is the case furniture. An interrelationship exists between dress.

Figures 1 to 3 illustrate three configurations larger Moreover. For account during the design process. Each bedroom are all factors that should be taken into The ideal plan would provide a bedroom for requires at least one clothes closet.

Clothes closets require a clear depth of two size for a larger bedroom or master bedroom activity space. Children's bedrooms single beds 3'3" x 6'6" each. Each child needs a space that is his or her and the furniture clearances and room sizes the size and scale of furniture.

One shelf and rod with at least 12 doors. At least one-half the closet floor shall be the bed and other furniture. Closets chairs 1'6" x 1'6" each. The location of activity It is essential to incorporate in the 4. Ample storage is essential. For secondary bed- room size should be 10'0"x12"0" exclusive of The minimum room width shall be deter.

These two factors compli.

A master bedroom should accommodate level and not more than 12 inches above floor Privacy. Department of Housing and Urban Develop- ment recommends the arrangement Illustrated in this diagram. The U. Net area: ST Women. Flooo R Finish t i2? Height Men. T 'i 'i Cabinet T? Shoe Racks. Metal 4a? H Approx 12 Garments on hangers H 16" desirable.

See Details number ot garments without crushing. The bathroom should be convenient to the bedroom zone. B 28 min. Towel bar 5. F 30 E D 52 min. Soap dish at lavatory may be integral Or Obstruction! Mirror and medicine cabinet or equiv- alent enclosed shelf space ssescssas Activity a Zone [ 6. Each complete bathroom should be pro- vided with the following: In all cases where shower head is installed.

D 18 E 36 min. Toilet paper holder at water closet Line ot Wall 3. Linen storage should be accessible from the bathroom. C 24 min. Grab-bar and soap dish at bathtub lu 0 2. E 18 Given the great variability in body sizes to be accommo- dated within a single family. J A iavatory height above the floor of 37 to 43 in. In order to establish the location of mirrors above the lavatory.

Figure 2 explores. It should be noted. Two-lavatory bathroom. Note 2 storage space under the lavatories and in a floor-to-ceiling unit. A wail-hung iavatory instead of a vanity 2 squeezes into 2'-6" width and Consider this idea for installing a half-bath In a closet or under a stairway. A corner shower. This bathroom is too smaii for a wheelchair. A 2-lavatory bathroom with adequate room at the toilet and each lavatory.

This plan also includes a bidet. Storage is In ft available. Even with generous storage space it takes only 2 the same space as many non-compartmented bathrooms.

It is as large as two bathrooms but costs less because of fewer fixtures and less plumbing. Two doors to each compartment are undesirable. This 3-fixture bathroom has excellent storage but is 2 only Five fixtures. Limited storage space available. Storage is under the 30" vanity and on shelves over the toilet. With fixtures in separate compartments.

Large 3-fixture bathroom. Although not usually a space saver. Consider a pocket door Three people can use between the compartments. PlKll6ri- trf: Do not use oily putty or plumbing sealants with marble. Requirements existing installation must be sound. Recommended uses for alteration of ceramic-tiled areas where modernization or achange of design is desired in residences. But such a height does not necessarily accom- modate the body dimension of all users for all tasks.

Such asystem could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size. B 40 Clearance between Appliances K Z The logical answer is the devel- opment of kitchen cabinet systems capable Fig.

All must be responsive to human dimension and body size if the quality of interface between the user and the components of the interior space are to be adequate.

Certain cooking activities. Standard kitchen counter heights man- ufactured are all about 36 in. In estab- lishing clearances between counters.

Refrigerator doors. Range Workzone G Q 35 max. The range workzone clearance. In this regard. Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 or 1 21 9 cm. D The i n.

The standing figure shown in broken line. The anthropometric basis in. The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. It should be located at sink center. It sometimes is closed off on one end. If dishwasher Is desired. If dishwasher is desired.

The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends. The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical U- shaped scheme.

A triangle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout. For combined work centers.. Work centers for the following equipment. Minimum clearance height between 3. Residential Spaces 4. At least 9 in from the at one side for serving and storage of utensils edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the Height of shelving and counter tops and staples.

Refrigerator space with counter space pliances opposite each other. Wall cabinets Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should Height of counter tops should be 36 in.

Range space with base and wall cabinet adjacent corner cabinet. This same sink and wall cabinet 24 in. Sink and base cabinet with counter side of the refrigerator is recommended. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Minimum clearance should elevation be not less than 3 in. Dimension B. Cabinet protection should be at least 14 in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0.

Dimension D: Dimension F. Dimension E: Clearance for D. Dimension C: Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided. Opt for the 15 in. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink.

Since the wall behind a sink dictate a distance of 30 in. With the increased use of such Your need for light is greatest over eiectricai appliances. General storage re- quires space for linens. No room count is allowable for this type facility.

A good light there a significant problem. A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit. But wall if A fan mounted in the wall is the a wider span you're taller. Kitchenette Item 0-bedroom living unit. Included in this category are self. A single fixture. Choose incandescent. The if space is minimal. Kitchen 1. Frameless base cabinets are also deep. Most are 1 Four-drawer base cabinets are available in available in widths ranging from 9" to 48?

Most are available in widths of 24? Tilt-Out Range Hoods: Most cabinets are available in widths ranging from 9" to Frameiess are 13Vfe" deep with doors. Frameless base available in a three-drawer style in widths cabinets are 24 3A" deep. Framed base cabinets are 24" ments. Except Oakcrest. No Center Medallion.. Often overlooked are clearances for verify local code requirements.

The designer should check seven heating elements as well as modular is the method of securing the dishwasher in requirements with the manufacturer. Refrigerators clearance must be verified with the manufac- but the designer is cautioned to carefully Refrigerator door swings and clearances are turer.

In addition. Manufactur- of critical importance. Accessi to 'plumbing adjoining cabinetwork. Some washers are fairly well standardized in terms sides and top of the refrigerator and any of the larger ranges consist of modular of overall dimensions.

Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only. A Countertop or wall-mounted oven. Cabinets and Base Removed 3. Clear open space. Bottom-hinged door. Pull-out board preferred with side-opening door. In Fig. Since removable base cabinets and adjust- able height counters are not now products that are readily available for download.

No other changes have been made to the kitchen. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height.

The adaptable features for kitchens spec- ified in the standards are shown in Figs. The wider work surface pro- vides space for pots. When not needed. The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven. You get a wide range of typical layouts and residential spaces, offices, conference rooms, and reception areas, in addition to details of bars, restaurants, and public toilets.

This exciting new edition includes new international examples and metrification — and provides you with full coverage of healthcare spaces, educational spaces; home offices; videoconferencing spaces; green design; project forms and schedules.

Two outstanding sections cover historic styles and woodworking. Architecture Nonfiction Publication Details Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education Imprint: McGraw-Hill Professional Edition: We want your feedback!The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above. Architecture Nonfiction. Careful consideration should always be given to the height and placement of task lighting in order to ensure that the surface or task below is being lit properly.

The designer. Cabinets and Base Removed 3. They were selected both because they were representative of typical situations faced by the designer of interior spaces and because they were particularly informative. Requirements existing installation must be sound.

DARNELL from Apple Valley
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