Homer ILIAD Translated by. Stanley Lombardo Introduced by. Sheila Murnaghan For Judy, my wife, Mae, my mother, Ben, my son and Ursula, my daughter. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Iliad of Homer by Homer. This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. The Essential Iliad (Hackett Classics series) by Homer. EPUB format; Title: The Essential Iliad; Series: Hackett Classics; Author: Homer; Stanley Lombardo (ed.); .

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"Gripping Lombardo's achievement is all the more striking when you consider the difficulties of his task (He) manages to be respectful of Homer's dire spirit. View from ARTS AND S at Rutgers University. Homer ILIAD Translated by Stanley Lombardo Introduced by Sheila Murnaghan For Judy, my wife. INTRODUCTION. In rendering the Iliad the translator has in the main followed the same principles as those which guided him in his translation of the Odyssey.

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Iliad Author: Hackett Pub. English View all editions and formats Summary: Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Print version: Achilles, Mythological character Material Type: Document, Internet resource Document Type: Stanley Lombardo. Lombardo's achievement is all the more striking when you consider the difficulties of his task Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis "It is hard to overstate the attractions of this translation.

User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: Achilles Greek mythology -- Poetry. Trojan War -- Poetry. Achilles -- Mythological character Epic poetry, Greek. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Primary Entity http: CreativeWork , schema: MediaObject , schema: Intangible ;.

Meeting , schema: InformationResource , genont: Home About Help Search. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? English View all editions and formats. Many friends have had a voice in this translation. William Levitan has been my literary coach, conscience, and comrade in this as in many previous ventures.

Anne Carson has taught me as much by example as by direct comment, for both of which I am grateful. Beth Bailey, a historian of American culture with a good ear, has kept me on key in many passages. Jean Valk, besides doing most of the work in compiling the indexes, has also checked the entire manuscript for accuracy and assisted me with many revisions.

My colleagues in the Classics Department at the University of Kansas have been unfailing in their moral and logistical support. And to all who have invited me to do performances in their homes, schools, and theaters, my sincerest thanks for providing the audiences who have collectively shaped the translation as much as any single person has.

Of all voices, the one I miss the most is that of Gareth Morgan, who died this past summer and who read Homer's Greek out loud more beautifully than any man on earth. The voice I cherish the most is that of Judy Roitman, mathematician, poet, and my wife, whose humor and generosity have seen me through this long labor. Work on the translation was supported by the University of Kansas in the form of sabbatical leaves, a fellowship from the Hall Center for the Humanities, and generous assistance from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

The poem recounts "the rage of Achilles," the greatest of the Greek heroes fighting in the war against Troy. This rage, the poet tells us,. As it opens with this episode of internecine strife, the Iliad draws us into a world of warrior aristocrats for whom honor, gained and regained in the front lines of battle, is paramount.

Under conditions of extreme pressure, their carefully cultivated distinctions of status give way to contention and hostility.

Agamemnon has as a war prize a woman, Chryseis, who is the daughter of a priest of the god Apollo.

When her father appeals to him to return her, invoking Apollo and offering a rich ransom, Agamemnon rudely dismisses him until Apollo sends a plague against the Greeks, which forces Agamemnon to give Chryseis back. Insisting that his loss of Chryseis must be compensated, Agamemnon decides to take a prize from another leader.

He soon fixes on Briseis, the prize of Achilles, whose superiority as a fighter has been a source of friction between them and who has challenged Agamemnon's shaky authority by taking the lead in coping with the plague and by pointing out that the Greeks have no undistributed prizes to replace Chryseis with.

For Achilles, Agamemnon's decision means public humiliation and an insulting disregard for his own hard-won status as the best of the Greeks, and he explodes with vicious taunts. You bloated drunk, With a dog's eyes and a rabbit's heart!

You've never had the guts to buckle on armor in battle Or come out with the best fighting Greeks On any campaign! Afraid to look Death in the eye, Agamemnon? It's far more profitable To hang back in the army's rear—isn't it? He slams to the ground the scepter, "studded with gold," that for generations has marked the right to speak in the Greek assembly, invoking its authority for a devastating threat. By this scepter, which will never sprout leaf Or branch again since it was cut from its stock In the mountains, which will bloom no more Now the bronze has pared off leaf and bark, And which now the sons of the Greeks hold in their hands At council, upholding Zeus' laws— By this scepter I swear: When every last Greek desperately misses Achilles, Your remorse won't do any good then, When Hector the man-killer swats you down like flies.

And you will eat your heart out Because you failed to honor the best Greek of all. The rest of the Iliad works out these consequences, charting the course of Achilles' rage as it intensifies, changes direction, and finally subsides. As it tells this story, the Iliad offers a full-scale examination of strife as an inescapable feature of human experience. All the characters in the poem must struggle to survive, endure, and make something of value out of conditions of constant conflict, which exist at all levels of the universe: in the clashes of divinities, in the drawn-out war between the Greeks and the Trojans, and in the tensions and rivalries of individuals.

The Greeks or, in Homer's own term, the Achaeans band together and cross the Aegean Sea to wage war against Troy, a gracious, prosperous city in Asia Minor present-day Turkey. Their motive is revenge, for the Trojan prince Paris has stolen Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, from her husband Menelaus, a major Greek chieftain.

Under the leadership of Menelaus' brother Agamemnon, the Greeks fight around Troy for ten years and finally succeed in destroying the city and regaining Helen. The Iliad focuses on Achilles' clash with Agamemnon, which occurs in the final year of the war.

But that brief episode is presented in ways that allow it to stand for or suggest the whole of the larger story of which it is part. Although Achilles remains stubbornly resistant to Agamemnon's attempts to appease him, he does eventually return to battle, drawn back by an overwhelming need to avenge the death of his closest companion, Patroclus. Patroclus at first joins Achilles in his withdrawal from the war but is eventually overcome by pity for the Greeks.

In Achilles' absence, the Greeks are dying in large numbers and the Trojans, led by Hector, are threatening to burn the Greek ships and so to cut the Greeks off from any hope of returning home, even in disgrace. Patroclus borrows Achilles' armor and returns to battle in Achilles' place. Although he fights brilliantly, killing a major Trojan hero, Sarpedon, he is eventually killed by Hector.

Shamed and outraged by Patroclus' death, Achilles is filled with anger against Hector and returns to the battlefield, where he eventually meets and kills Hector. The Iliad ends soon after this, with Achilles' decision to return Hector's body to his father, Priam, and with the funeral for Hector that can then take place.

But it is clear that the story of the Trojan war is effectively over: by killing Hector, Achilles has eliminated Troy's indispensable defender, assuring the fall of the city and the victory of the Greeks. The story of Achilles is also over: as he learns from his mother, Thetis, who is a goddess, his own death is fated to follow soon after Hector's.

The poet goes out of his way to keep us aware of these looming consequences, although he does not recount them. As they mourn over Hector, the Trojans anticipate the loss of their city and their own defeated future. The death of Achilles is expressed symbolically in the death of Patroclus, who represents for Achilles a kind of second self.

In Book 4, a truce between the Greeks and Trojans is broken when a Trojan warrior decides to aim for personal glory and shoots at Menelaus; this recapitulates the origins of the war, which also started with an act of Trojan wrongdoing, Paris' theft of Helen.

When the Greek army marches out to battle at the end of Book 2, we are given a list known as the Catalogue of Ships of all the commanders and how many shiploads of men each commanded, something one might expect in an initial account of the expedition. The following book includes an episode in which Helen comes out on the wall of Troy, where the Trojan elders are watching the proceedings, and identifies for them the various Greek leaders; this is hardly likely to have been necessary by this point in the war, but it offers us an introduction to some of most important participants.

Because Achilles stays out of the action for most of the Iliad, the poet is able draw attention to the many other Greek warriors, such as Ajax, Agamemnon, Diomedes, and Odysseus, who over the course of the war also contribute to the Greek effort that Achilles ultimately dominates.

As Achilles predicts to Agamemnon, his absence also provides a crucial opportunity to Hector, who emerges as a major character, as we follow his progress toward near victory over the Greeks. Beyond that, the poet weaves into his narrative the names and stories of many other, less prominent figures, striving for comprehensiveness in a way that is typical of epic, the poetic genre that, as the earliest example in the Western tradition, the Iliad in part defines.

While the Iliad uses Achilles' story as a means of organizing and concentrating its portrait of the Trojan war, it differs from the sharply focused explorations of individual experience found in many modern novels or in classical tragedy. One of its aims is to record the sheer number of people, each with his or her own history and circumstances, whose lives are decisively shaped by the war, whether by sounding their names in a virtuoso list of the participants such as the Catalogue of Ships, or by focusing in on a particular warrior's final moments on the battlefield, or by taking us into Troy, where the women and old men of the city live as anguished spectators of the war.

Achilles' story gains in grandeur and significance because of the countless others who are affected by his departure from the war and his eventual return and whose individual efforts his own choices illuminate. His brilliant exploits acquire their meaning in the context of the large-scale cooperative venture of the Greek expedition.

The Iliad is the portrait of an entire society, structured around the experience of one individual who struggles to define himself within it and against it. At the top of its hierarchical structure are heroes, superior men who are descendants of gods as well as of mortals.

Their high status is expressed in social gestures such as how they are addressed ; in special privileges where they sit at a feast ; in their share of the tangible wealth of the group in such forms as wine, meat, tripods, cattle, land, and women ; and in the intangible reward of reputation or fame.

The communal life of these heroes is highly ceremonious; as they eat together, worship the gods together, participate in councils together, and enter battle together, they follow prescribed forms of speech and behavior that knit them together as a group, that express the honor that they are continually granting and receiving, and that endow their harsh labors with the elegance and orderliness of civilization.

Book 12 of the Iliad contains a famous speech that seems to sum up the workings of this social system. It is delivered by Sarpedon, the son of Zeus himself, who is a prominent warrior from an area in Asia Minor called Lycia, fighting on the Trojan side. Here it is important to note that the Trojans and their allies are depicted as having the same values and customs as the Greeks; while the Iliad recounts a myth that played a major role in the formation of Greek identity, it does not present the Greeks' enemies as alien.

Homeric warfare involves a great deal of talking as well as fighting, and before plunging into battle, Sarpedon turns to his friend Glaucus and offers a kind of meditation on why they willingly accept this experience of violence, chaos, and likely death. Not to mention our estates on the Xanthus, Fine orchards and riverside wheat fields.

Well, now we have to take our stand at the front, Where all the best fight, and face the heat of battle, So that many an armored Lycian will say, "So they're not inglorious after all, Our Lycian lords who eat fat sheep And drink the sweetest wine.

No, They're strong, and fight with our best. But, as it is, death is everywhere In more shapes than we can count, And since no mortal is immune or can escape, Let's go forward, either to give glory To another man, or get glory from him. They accept this heightened risk because of those rewards and because death is inescapable.

Since life is finite, they are willing for it to be cut short if they can enjoy honor and privileges while it lasts and if they can win some permanent fame that will outlive them. Part of what makes heroic combat so breathtaking is this head-on response to mortality. Instead of evading death, heroes make it their own, inflicting it on others and courting it for themselves.

As Sarpedon describes it, this system works smoothly, and he does indeed follow his speech by entering the battle although his cheerful acceptance comes to seem more poignant in retrospect when he is killed by Patroclus. But the Iliad does not just describe this society and celebrate the achievements of its leaders; it also reveals its flaws and weaknesses as they emerge under conditions of severe strain.

The Iliad is set at a time when the war has been going on for so long that both sides have been drained of resources and everyone involved is exhausted. Even if it can survive, Troy has lost the wealth and manpower that made it a great city.

The Greeks have been cut off for nine years from the rich fields and glorious feasts that supposedly make combat worthwhile. Both sides have trouble remembering why they are fighting in the first place.

Helen appears in the poem as a bitterly self-blaming spectator of the suffering she has caused, having long regretted her impulsive desertion of Menelaus for Paris.

None of it was to be, And lamenting it has been my slow death. The crisis in the Greek camp, with which the plot begins, reflects the particular strains that arise when a group of heroes, who are all preeminent at home, as Sarpedon is in Lycia, have to temper their individual claims in order to work together as a unified force. This situation is further complicated by the intervention of the gods through Apollo's plague.

The forced return of Chryseis disrupts the harmony achieved by the acceptable distribution of booty. With one fewer prize to go around, it is no longer possible for every hero to feel appropriately honored and there is nothing to keep the competition between Agamemnon and Achilles from flaring up in open hostility.

The desperate reactions of both heroes to the threat of losing a prize show how fully their sense of self is bound up in these external marks of honor. They know themselves in large part through their social status, which is created and expressed in public settings. Furthermore, as Sarpedon's speech makes clear, these prizes acquire added value from their supremely high price: the heroes' willingness to risk their lives every time they enter battle.

The conflict between Achilles and Agamemnon also shows how hard it can be to apportion honor in a way that satisfies everyone. He then launches an attempt to find adequate compensation outside the conventional words and actions of that community and, in doing so, forces every reader of the Iliad to consider how and whether this is possible. Through Thetis he is able to appeal to Zeus, the king of the gods and the commanding figure of the universe.

Zeus honors his appeal by making the Trojans succeed in the war, so that Agamemnon and the other Greeks become agonizingly aware of what Achilles' alienation is costing them. In turning to Zeus, Achilles turns to a realm of powerful beings who are constantly involved in human affairs and who resemble human beings but who also differ from them in important ways.

The distinctness of these forces and their potential for conflict is expressed in the existence of a range of individual gods with different associations: for example, Poseidon is the god of the sea, Aphrodite of erotic love, Athena of craftsmanship and of war as an instrument of justice, Ares of war in its violence and brutality, Apollo of music and prophecy, etc.

At the same time, the gods are linked as members of a single family, under the authority of its head, Zeus, whose supremacy is expressed in his control of the sky and his possession of thunder and lightning as weapons.

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Because of their superior power, the gods can command the obedience and veneration of human beings, who must seek their favor through offerings, most often the sacrifice of animals, and they are constantly able to intervene in human life. In fact, all human endeavors occur under the sponsorship of the gods, and Homeric poetry frequently alludes to the divine support that underlies one human act after another. On the battlefield, a spear often meets its mark because a god makes sure that it does or falls uselessly to the ground because a god has chosen to deflect it.

The gods have individual favorites whose interests they promote, and they also take sides in the war. Thus Aphrodite is on the Trojan side and Hera, Zeus' wife, and Athena, his daughter, are on the Greek side, because of an event that lies behind the story of the Iliad, although it is mentioned only once, toward the end of the poem, the so-called Judgment of Paris. Paris' theft of Helen—the occasion of the Trojan War—has been carried out with the help of Aphrodite as a reward for picking her over Hera and Athena in a beauty contest.

Not only do the Homeric gods have more power than human beings, they also have greater knowledge, in particular of fate; they know what is destined to happen and act consciously to bring that about.

For many modern readers, the activities of the gods and the existence of fate seem to drain the human characters of their autonomy, to turn them into puppets. It is important to recognize, however, that divine intervention is almost always in harmony with the preexisting qualities and instincts of those human characters.

Divine favor may make possible displays of heroic excellence, but it is also a response to that excellence; in an unbreakably circular logic, men are heroic because the gods help them, and the gods help them because they are heroic.

When gods influence events, they work through impulses that are already present in the characters, and the poet often presents events as doubly motivated, stemming both from the plans and projects of the gods and from those of the human characters.

The confluence of divine intervention and human impulse can be illustrated from an episode early in the poem. Just before Achilles insults Agamemnon and slams down the scepter, he almost kills him instead. As he reaches for his sword, he wavers:.

A modern reader may want to interpret Athena here as symbolizing a psychological force within Achilles, an intrinsic capacity for restraint and rational calculation.

Granting her the external reality she has for Homer, we can still see that her intervention makes Achilles decide on a course of action he was already considering. Similarly, fate does not function in the Homeric world as a force that causes characters to do what they otherwise would not. Human beings bring about what is fated through all of the individual, often short-sighted decisions they make while pursuing their various goals.

Knowledge of fate, which the gods possess and occasionally share with mortals, is like advance knowledge of the plot of a novel or a film. It allows a greater appreciation of the direction of events that for most characters seem random and open-ended, but it does not alter the behavior of those characters. Certainly the human characters in the Iliad experience their lives as involving choices, often difficult ones, and they expect to be judged by the consequences of their choices despite the fact that those choices—like all human actions—are sponsored by the gods and bring about what is fated.

While the Homeric gods resemble humans to a striking extent in their appearance and their emotions, they differ in the crucial respect that they are not subject to permanent change, including above all death; they are immortal.

This difference is pointedly illustrated early in the Iliad, when the conflict in the Greek camp with which the poem begins is followed by an episode of conflict among the gods. When Thetis comes to Zeus and asks him to help Achilles by making the Trojans do well in the war, so Agamemnon will recognize his mistake and restore Achilles' honor, Hera suspects what is going on and, because she herself favors the Greeks, becomes angry.

When Zeus returns to the divine circle, she berates him, and the gods' habitual gaiety is threatened by discord. But while the discord among the Greeks continues for many days and does not end until many men, both Trojan and Greek, have been killed, this divine quarrel is instantly patched up, as Hera's son Hephaestus persuades her to give up her anger. He tells her a story to remind her that there is no point resisting Zeus, who is more powerful than the rest of them, and he reminds her that a quarrel between her and Zeus will spoil the gods' fun: This is terrible; it's going to ruin us all.

If you two quarrel like this over mortals It's bound to affect us gods.

Editorial Reviews

There'll be no more Pleasure in our feasts if we let things turn ugly. Among the human characters, the power structure is less clear and more subject to change, so that Achilles does have reason to contest Agamemnon's authority. And the gods, having nothing to lose, see no point in fighting over what they care about.

Hera would rather that the Greeks not do badly in the war, but their losses do not mean enough to her that she would sacrifice the pleasure of a feast because of them. Achilles, on the other hand, goes to great lengths to protest his loss of Briseis, because she represents the honor which is his only compensation for the likely loss of his life.

Only in a few rare instances are the gods shown as suffering the constraints that define human life, and those involve cases where they are bound to humans by the tie of parenthood. In a surprising episode in Book 16, Zeus himself experiences the demands of fate, with its intimate connection to human mortality, as a painful limitation. As the moment approaches when his own son Sarpedon is fated to die at the hands of Patroclus, Zeus toys with the idea of reversing fate but backs off, weeping tears of blood, when the other gods make it clear that they will not support him.

Much more extensively, the Iliad portrays Achilles' mother, Thetis, as deeply pained by the fate of her son, whose present sufferings and future death she constantly mourns. While Achilles imagines at that point that Zeus' only intention is to restore Achilles' lost honor, Zeus' role in the events of the Iliad is, in fact, much more complicated and enigmatic.

The aims of the human characters and the other gods, through whom Zeus works, are relatively clear, but the "will of Zeus" itself remains opaque. Although he is the ultimate source of most good things in human life, and he reacts with distaste to Hera's intransigent hatred of the Trojans, he seems mysteriously bent on the perpetuation of the war to the point of maximum destruction.

The Trojans are so successful that they push the Greeks back into their ships, around which the Greeks have built a defensive wall and ditch; the Trojans now camp on the plain, no longer retreating into Troy at night. Recognizing that their cause is lost without Achilles, Agamemnon sends three ambassadors to him with an offer of amends that includes the return of Briseis and a huge number of additional prizes.

In a stunning response that overturns all expectations, Achilles rejects this offer. In a long and passionate speech, he announces that he is going to leave Troy and return home. While the force of this speech is unmistakable, its exact meaning has been much debated: making sense of this difficult speech is a major challenge for readers of the Iliad. ACHILLES This speech is so challenging because Achilles' continued sense of outrage expresses itself in contradictory positions, and he shiftsback and forth between them.

In part he is simply still furious at what Agamemnon has done, unable to forget Agamemnon's errors and his own mistreatment: He cheated me, wronged me. Never again. He's had it. He can go to hell in peace, The half-wit that Zeus has made him. His gifts? His gifts mean nothing to me. As a result, Achilles' expressions of ongoing anger are set side by side with radical reconsiderations of the basic principles of heroic culture, such as the assumption that honorbearing gifts are a worthwhile compensation for the loss of life in battle.

Nothing is worth my life, not all the riches They say Troy held before the Greeks came, Not all the wealth in Phoebus Apollo's Marble shrine up in craggy Pytho. Cattle and flocks are there for the taking; You can always get tripods and chestnut horses.

It doesn't matter if you stay in camp or fight— In the end, everybody comes out the same. Coward and hero get the same reward: You die whether you slack off or work.

In his continuing frustration, he asks a great deal of his culture, perhaps more than it can give. He tells the ambassadors that he will not yield until Agamemnon has "paid in full for all my grief" 9.

Agamemnon has certainly erred in the past, and he may be erring still in approaching Achilles through ambassadors rather than apologizing in person, but the gifts he offers are, as the wise veteran Nestor puts it, "beyond reproach" 9. Even as he insists on these demands, Achilles also voices a new and unparalleled clarity 70 ACHILLES about how little his culture has to offer, about the paltriness of the gifts and privileges with which men honor each other compared to the immensity of death.

Here too, Achilles' independence from the other Greeks and from the values that animate them is supported by his special closeness to the gods. In his speech, he brings up the privileged information that he has from his divine mother. My mother Thetis, a moving silver grace, Tells me two fates sweep me on to my death. If I stay here and fight, I'll never return home, But my glory will be undying forever.

If I return home to my dear fatherland My glory is lost but my life will be long, And death that ends all will not catch me soon. This certainty sets him off from other heroes, who can always hope, against all odds, to be spared, and it gives him a sense of freedom and choice, an ability to choose against the unequal bargain of life for honor that more ordinary warriors regularly enter into. Achilles' newfound clarity about the inadequacy of the system in which he and the other Greeks have operated brings a new perspective to the poem, allowing it to show how the heroic world may look from a position outside it.

Some of what Achilles cannot see is expressed in the speeches of the ambassadors who respond to him. Horrified by Achilles' decision, which spells certain disaster for all of them, they offer answers to his complaints that are deeply embedded in their common heritage. First Phoenix, Achilles' beloved old tutor, tells him "a very old story" 9.

Like Achilles, Meleager is offered rich gifts if he will return and is solicited by his friends and family, but he remains adamant until the moment when his city is about to be destroyed and his wife, Cleopatra, begs him to save it.

Meleager returns to battle and saves his city, but at that point the gifts are no longer available. Phoenix's story responds to Achilles' claim that gifts are not adequate compensation for fighting, by showing that there are other reasons why people fight besides honor.

The Essential Iliad

If you are going to end up fighting anyway, he points out, you might as well take the gifts when they are offered. Ajax in his response draws not on a traditional story, but on a shared institution, that of the blood price. He bitterly criticizes Achilles for his savage heart and lack of pity for the Greeks, who have loved and honored him, and he counters Achilles' sense of outraged superiority with another model of human behavior, one that involves self-restraint and acceptance of loss.

A man accepts compensation For a murdered brother, a dead son.

The Iliad by Homer

Faced with a loss that can never be made up, they let go of their attachment to the dead and are content with the only compensation there is. These speeches answer Achilles' concerns obliquely, and his own response to them is ambiguous.

In his words, he repeats both his undiminished anger at Agamemnon, telling Ajax that Everything you say is after my own heart. But I swell with rage when I think of how The son of Atreus treated me like dirt. My honor comes from Zeus" 9. But he does keep retreating from his announced plan of leaving Troy, first telling Phoenix that he will decide in the morning whether or not to go and then telling Ajax that he will stay out of the war until he is personally threatened, until Hector is about to burn his own huts and ships.

The debate between Achilles and Agamemnon's ambassadors ends there and is never explicitly taken up again, but the rest of the Iliad tells how Achilles ends up doing what he has so adamantly insisted he will not do, fighting again for the Greeks. And, in doing so, Achilles reenacts the pattern set by Phoenix's story of Meleager: Achilles too returns to battle to save his community through the agency of the person he cares most about, in his case Patroclus whose name inverts and echoes the name of Meleager's wife Cleopatra.

The relationship between Achilles and Patroclus involves both intense closeness they are so close that later Greeks who idealized male homosexual relations assumed they were lovers, although there is no indication of that in the Iliad and a stark contrast: while Achilles is violent, quick to anger, and jealous of his own honor, Patroclus is gentle, concerned for the bonds of friendship between members of the army, and compassionate, and he reenters the war out of pity for the many Greeks who are dying because of Achilles' absence.

When he rejoins the battle, Patroclus does so as Achilles' surrogate, literally impersonating him by wearing his armor, and he represents Achilles' double as well as his opposite. Patroclus becomes consumed with the kind of rage for combat associated with Achilles, and he fights with risky brilliance, achieving glorious success by killing Sarpedon but also exposing himself to death at the hands of Hector. Conversely, Patroclus' death awakens in Achilles a sense of connectedness to other people as he experiences anguish for the loss of his beloved friend and shame for his failure to protect ACHILLES him.

Shaken from his sense of glorious superiority, Achilles now sees himself, in his willed isolation, as worthless, "a dead weight on the earth," as he tells his mother For Achilles, Patroclus' death is a shattering reminder of those other reasons for fighting that he seemed to forget in his obsession with Agamemnon's faults and the insufficiency of honor. In their self-presentation and their rational calculations, heroes may stress the material rewards and status that come from fighting, as Sarpedon does in his speech to Glaucus, but they are also inspired by concern for the communities they protect and by deep bonds between each other: although Sarpedon may present their situation as a set of bargains, he does also address Glaucus as "my friend.

The rage that he has felt toward Agamemnon is now supplanted by a new rage against Hector, and he fights with a viciousness and single-mindedness that contrast sharply with the rest of the fighting described in the Iliad. That fighting, while brutal, is nonetheless balanced by civilized practices like pausing to eat, to sleep, or to bury the dead.

As he seeks revenge for Patroclus' death, Achilles seems more like an elemental force than an ordinary warrior in his indiscriminate violence, taking on even the river Scamander , and he stands outside the normal practices of human warfare.

As he rejoins the Greek army, he has no patience for stopping to let the men eat and drink or even for receiving the gifts that Agamemnon has promised him; and Odysseus, who is much more finely attuned to the protocols of heroic society, has to insist that he go through those motions. Achilles' distance from the normal decorum of warfare is most pointed and explicit at the moment when he finally encounters the object of his fury, Hector.

Hector proposes a bargain whereby the winner of their combat will return the loser's body to his family for the loving and ceremonious burial with which people attempt to cure the insult of violent death, but Achilles has no interest in that: Don't try to cut any deals with me, Hector. Do lions make peace treaties with men? Do wolves and lambs agree to get along? No, they hate each other to the core, And that's how it is between you and me. No talk of agreements until one of us Falls and gluts Ares with his blood.

Still set apart by his godlike knowledge of fate—made all the clearer by Thetis when she tells him, as he decides to return, that he will die next after Hector: "Hector's death means yours" HECTOR In rejecting Hector's proposal, Achilles distances himself from a hero who, unlike Achilles, has always remained identified with the values and rituals of his society. Throughout the Iliad, Hector and the other Trojans provide a different perspective on heroism from the Greeks, as they fight around and for their own city, battling for the survival of their homes and families, rather than for the glory to be won in a foreign expedition.

While Hector shares the courage and fighting ability typified by Achilles, he also manifests the connection to his community associated with Patroclus, and, as he too struggles with his identity as a hero, he does so in the context of his relations with family members rather than with his commander.When the Greek army marches out to battle at the end of Book 2, we are given a list known as the Catalogue of Ships of all the commanders and how many shiploads of men each commanded, something one might expect in an initial account of the expedition.

While Hector shares the courage and fighting ability typified by Achilles, he also manifests the connection to his community associated with Patroclus, and, as he too struggles with his identity as a hero, he does so in the context of his relations with family members rather than with his commander.

It is delivered by Sarpedon, the son of Zeus himself, who is a prominent warrior from an area in Asia Minor called Lycia, fighting on the Trojan side. He's had it. Therefore, in preparing script I varied some of the formulaic phrases and cut others, especially epithets that added length but not much else to the line. Similar Items.

THADDEUS from Hampton
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